Tensile testers or universal testing machines are machines that test the strength of a particular material. They do this by applying appropriate force to the material. The force is applied to the material until it breaks, thereby determining, how much pressure the material can take. This test is known as a tensile test. Different materials have different tensile strengths ranging from steel to iron. a

Few things are considered to test the tensile strength of any material.

Plastics and wood have the lowest while iron, steel, and aluminum are mostly best for it strength, along with properties of expansion and compressions.

Load Frame

The very first component of a tensile testing machine is the load frame. They can be classified into a single and double support system.  The load frame component also contains a table. Over this table, one can keep the material that is to be tested for compression, testily, adhesion and other. It can help in determining the capacity of load bearable by the provided material.

Upper crosshead

They can be considered to be a part of the load frame unit as well. They are used to adjust and fit the material under the tensile testing machine. The upper crosshead is fixed and is used to clamp one end of the material to be tested.

Lower crosshead

The lower crosshead is mobile and can be adjusted to fix the material according to its height and structure. They are also composed of a pair of jacks. They are used to fit the material according to its shape. The stability of the material after withstanding the load can be determined by the lower cross head procedure. 

Elongation Scale

As the name suggests it is used to measure the movements of the material which is to be tested. This is supplied along with the load frame. Therefore, one can assess the slightest movements of the specimen.

Hydraulic Power Unit

This component provides fuel to the load frame. This assists in the regular flow of load on the specimen to be tested. Along with this, it is also power-driven by an electric motor.

Load Measuring unit

This, as the name suggests helps in the application of the appropriate amount of load on the material. The load measuring unit can adjust the load as well as record the tensile put on the material. The measurement of this pressure is extremely precise.

These were some components of tensile testers. They can be applied  into a variety of uses. Let’s discuss a few of its applications

Tensile Test

This is one of the most common uses of the universal testing machine. It gives a measure of strength, endurance, and strain of a particular sample of material. Along with the ability to expand and compress with the input of pressure and heat.

Bend Test

The test as the name suggests tests the flexibility or the bending capacity of the material to be tested. It is again done by somewhat applying a compression force until it bends to a particular point or breaks, giving a record of its rigorousness and elasticity. Materials with higher elasticity and tensile strength are best for considering greater loads. Hereby materials can withstand heat and moisture maintaining quality with considerable loads.

These were a few applications of tensile testers. It can be used for many other tests such as puncture test, peel test, adhesion test, or hysteresis test. It is made generally with steel, concrete, ropes many other materials. The universal testing machine provides a lot of information about a particular material and its capacity. Therefore, it is suggested that buy a certified, load applying capacity, durability, clasps, and fixture of a machine and then purchase.